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At present, about 80% of the world's demand for transportation fuels -- road, rail, air and sea -- are met by derivatives from the fossil fuel, petroleum.
Petrol, one of the major derivatives of petroleum, is used throughout the world as a motor vehicle fuel.
They are 'heavier' than the components of petrol and thus it is a less volatile fuel.
These emissions can be reduced by using carbon canisters containing activated charcoal which absorbs these vapours.
This in turn requires that the petrol be lead free if the catalyst is to function properly.
In Australia this resulted in a decision to change to cars which operate on unleaded petrol with a lower octane than previously used, so that changes to refinery configurations, to make up for the octane loss upon the removal of the lead, would not be too extensive.
This indicates the ability of the fuel to resist detonation, which is referred to as engine pinging or knocking.
Such detonation is caused by the spontaneous igniting of the fuel and air in the engine cylinders before the spark is fired.